Key
=LIDO Publications    |    Underlined Publications are linked to PDF's.


Instrument Development Publications

Peyrot M, Bushnell DM, Best JH, Martin ML, Patrick DL.  The Self-Management Profile for Type 2 Diabetes (SMP-T2D): Measurement properties of a new measure of diabetes-specific self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 10:125-135,  2012.

Rocha NS, Power MJ, Bushnell DM, Fleck MP. The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item: Comparative psychometric properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF. Value in Health, 15:449-457, 2012.

Bushnell DM, Martin ML, Moore KA, Richter HE, Rubin A, Patrick DL.  Menorrhagia Impact Questionnaire: Assessing the influence of heavy menstrual bleeding on quality of life. Current Medical Research & Opinion 26(12):2745-55, 2010.

Brod M, Hammer M, Kragh N, Lessard S, Bushnell DM. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 8:19, 2010.

Brod M, Christensen T, Kongsø JH, Bushnell DM.  Examining and interpreting responsiveness of the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction Measure (DiabMedSat).  Journal of Medical Economics 12(4):309-316, 2009.

Martin ML, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Meltzer EO, Gutierrez B, Parasuraman B.  Development of the Asthma Treatment Satisfaction MeasureCurrent Medical Research & Opinion 25(10) Oct 2009. Epub ahead of print August 19, 2009.

Symonds T, Perelman MA, Althof S, Giuliano F, Martin M, May K, Abraham L, Crossland A, Morris M. Development and Validation of a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. European Urology 52(2):565-573, 2007.

Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Rothman M. Performance of two self-report measures for evaluating obesity and weight loss. Obesity Research 12(1):48-57, 2004.

Patrick DL, Martin ML, Bushnell DM, Pesa J.  Measuring satisfaction with migraine treatment:  expectations, importance, outcomes, and global ratings.  Clinical Therapeutics 25(11): 2920-2935, 2003.

Niero M, Martin ML, Finger T, Lucas R, Mear I, Wild D, Glauda L, Patrick DL. Multi-Cultural Development of Two New Obesity-specific Health-Related Quality of Life and Symptom Measures: The OWLQOL (Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life) Instrument and the WRSM (Weight-Related Symptom Measure). Clinical Therapeutics 24(4): 690-700, 2002.

Patrick DL, Martin ML, Buesching DP. Evaluating the Impact of Urinary Incontinence and Its Treatment. Medical Outcomes Trust for MOT Bulletin 6-10 Fall 2000.

Bonomi AE, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Martin ML. Validation of the United States' version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instrument. J Clinical Epidemiology 53:1-12, 2000.

Bonomi AE, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Martin ML. Quality of life measurement Will we ever be satisfied? J Clinical Epidemiology 53:19-23, 2000.

Hogan T, Grimaldi R, Dingemanse J, Martin ML, Lyons K, Koller W. The Parkinson's disease symptom inventory (PDSI): A comprehensive and sensitive instrument to measure disease symptoms and treatment side-effects. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 5(3):93-98, 1999.

Patrick DL, Martin ML, Bushnell DM. The I-QOL: A quality-of-life instrument specific to persons with urinary incontinence: User's manual and scoring diskette for United States version. Seattle, Washington: Health Research Associates, Inc., 1999.

Patrick DL, Martin ML, Bushnell DM, Yalcin I, Wagner TH, Buesching DP. Quality of life of women with urinary incontinence: Further development of the incontinence quality of life instrument (I-QOL). Urology 53(1):71-76, 1999.

Patrick DL, Martin ML, Bushnell DM. A quality-of-life measure for persons with migraine: User's manual and scoring diskette for United States version. Seattle, Washington: Health Research Associates, Inc., 1997. 


Qualitative Research and Cross-Cultural Publications

Geister T, Quintanar-Solares M, Martin M, Aufhammer S, Asmus F. Qualitative development of the ‘Questionnaire on Pain caused by Spasticity (QPS),’ a pediatric patientreported outcome for spasticityrelated pain in cerebral palsy. Quality of Life Research, 23(3):887-896, 2014.

Rydén A, Martin M, Halling K, Niklasson A.  Night-Time Symptoms and Their Impact on Sleep in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Who Have a Partial Response to Proton Pump Inhibitors: A Qualitative Patient Interview Study. The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, 6(4):307-314, 2013.

Martin M, McCarrier K, Chiou C, Gordon K, Kimball A, Van Voorhees A, Gottlieb A, Huang X, Globe D, Chau D, Kricorian G, Viswanathan H. Early development and qualitative evidence of content validity for the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI), a patient-reported outcome measure of psoriasis symptom severity. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 24(4): 255–260, 2013.

Kingery L, Martin ML, Naegeli AN, Khan S, Viktrup L.  Content validity of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII): a measure of how urinary trouble and problems associated with BPH may impact the patient.  Int J Clin Pract 2012; 66(9):883-890.

Gwaltney CJ, Slagle AF, Martin ML, Ariely R, Brede Y.  Hearing the voice of the patient: Key experiences identified in qualitative patient interviews.  British Journal of Cardiology 19:25, 2012.

Koller M, Kantzer V, Mear I, Zarzar K, Martin M, Greimel E, Bottomly A, Arnott M, Kuliś D on behalf of the ISOQOL TCA-SIG.  The process of reconciliation: Evaluation of guidelines for translating quality-of-life measures.  Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 12(2):189-19, 2012.

Patrick DL, Burke LB, Gwaltney C, Kline Leidy N, Martin ML, Molsen E, Ring L.  Content Validity –  Establishing and Reporting Evidence in Newly Developed Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Instruments for Medical Product Evaluation: ISPOR PRO Good Research Practices Task Force Report: Part 1–Eliciting Concepts for a new PRO Instrument. Value in Health 14(8):967-977, 2011. 

Patrick DL, Burke LB, Gwaltney C, Kline Leidy N, Martin ML, Molsen E, Ring L.  Content Validity –  Establishing and Reporting Evidence in Newly Developed Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Instruments for Medical Product Evaluation: ISPOR PRO Good Research Practices Task Force Report: Part 2–Assessing Respondent Understanding. Value in Health 14(8):978-988, 2011.

Martin ML, Patrick DL, Gandra SR, Bennett AV, Leidy NK, Nissenson AR, Finkelstein FO, Lewis EF, Wu AW, Ware JE.  Content validation of two SF-36 subscales for use in type 2 diabetes and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease-related anemia. Quality of Life Research 20(6):889-901, 2011.

Wild D, Eremenco S, Mear I, Martin M, Houchin C, Gawlicki M, Hareendran A, Wiklund I, Chong LY, von Maltzahn R, Cohen L Molsen E.  Multinational trials – Recommendations on the translations required, approaches to using the same language in different countries, and the approaches to support pooling the data:  The ISPOR Patient-Reported Outcomes Translation & Linguistic Validation Good Research Practices Task Force Report.  Value in Health 12(4):430-440, 2009.

Huang W, Zhou F, Bushnell DM, Diakite C, Yang X.  Cultural adaptation and application of the IBS-QOL in China: A disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire.  Quality of Life Research 16(6):991-996, 2007.

Abraham L, Field B, Svihra J, Hareendran A, Martin ML, Bushnell DM, Gong JQ, Levinson I, Streeter J. Electronic diaries: Exploring cross-cultural preferences and acceptability. Drug Information Journal 40(3):259-266, 2006.

Bailey A, Martin ML, Girman C, McNaughton-Collins M, Barry MJ; Development of a Multi-Regional US Spanish Translation of the I-PSS and the BPH Impact Index (BII).  Urology 174:1896-1901, 2005.

Wild D, Grove A, Martin ML, Eremenco S, Ford S, Verjeee-Lorenz A, Erikson P; ISPOR Principles of Good Practice: The Cross-Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient Reported, Value in Health 8(2):94-104, 2005.

Bushnell DM, Martin ML, Summers KH, Svihra J, Lionis C, Patrick DL; Quality of Life in Women with Urinary Incontinence: Cross-Cultural Performance of 15 Language Versions of the I-QOL. Quality of Life Research, 14(8):1901-1913, 2005.

Niero M, Martin ML, Finger T, Lucas R, Mear I, Wild D, Glauda L, Patrick DL. Multi-Cultural Development of Two New Obesity-specific Health-Related Quality of Life and Symptom Measures: The OWLQOL (Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life) Instrument and the WRSM (Weight-Related Symptom Measure). Clinical Therapeutics 24(4): 690-700, 2002.

Patrick DL, Martin ML, Bushnell DM, Marquis P, Andrejasich CM, Buesching DP. Cultural adaptation of a quality-of-life measure for urinary incontinence. European Urology 36:427-435, 1999.

Wagner TH, Patrick DL, Bavendam TG, Martin ML, Buesching DP. Quality of life of persons with urinary incontinence: Development of a new measure. Urology 47(1):67-71, 1996.

Patrick DL, Wild DJ, Johnson ES, Wagner TH, Martin ML. Cross-cultural validation of quality of life measures. In: Quality of Life Assessment: International Perspectives (Eds. J. Orley and W Kuyken) Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag:19-32.0, 1994.


Validation and Other Analyses Publications

Bushnell D, Martin M, Scanlon M, Chen T, Chau D, Viswanathan H. Equivalence and measurement properties of an electronic version of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory. Quality of Life Research, 23(3): 897-906, 2014.

Bushnell D, Martin M, McCarrier K, Gordon K, Chiou C, Huang X, Ortmeier B, Kricorian G. Validation of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI), a patient-reported outcome measure to assess psoriasis symptom severity.  Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 24(5):356-360, 2013.

Brod M, Wolden M, Christensen T, Bushnell D.  A nine country study of the burden of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemic events on diabetes management and daily function.  Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 15(6):546–557, 2013.

Brod M, Bushnell DM, Christensen TL.  The impact of non-severe hypoglycemic events on daytime function and diabetes management among adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.  Journal of Medical Economics 15(5):869-877, 2012.

Brod M, Christensen TL, Bushnell DM.  Impact of nocturnal hypoglycemic events on diabetes management, sleep quality, and next-day function: results from a four-country survey.  Journal of Medical Economics 15(1):1-10, 2012.

Symonds T, Abraham L, Bushmakin AG, Williams K, Martin ML, Cappelleri JC.  Sexual Function Questionnaire: Further Refinement and Validation. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 9(10):2609-2616, 2012.

Bennett AV, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Chiou CF, Diehr P.  Comparison of 7-day and repeated 24-hour recall of symptoms of type 2 diabetes.  Quality of Life Research 20(5):769-777, 2011

Welch MJ, Martin ML, Williams P, Gallet C, Miller M, Ramachandran S, Lampl K, May R.  Evaluation of Inhaler Device Technique in Caregivers of Young Children with Asthma. Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology, 23(2):113-120, 2010.

Brod M, Valensi P, Shaban JA, Bushnell DM, Christensen TL.  Patient treatment satisfaction after switching to NovoMix® 30 (BIAsp30) in the IMPROVETM Study – An analysis of the influence of prior and current treatment factors. Quality of Life Research 19(9):1285-93, 2010.

Gandra S, Finkelstein F, Bennett A, Lewis E, Brazg T, Martin M.  Impact of ESA on Energy and Physical Function in Nondialysis CKD Patients with Anemia: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Kidney Disease 55(3):519-534, 2010.

Martin ML, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Gandra SR, Gilchrist K.  Further Validation of an Individualized Migraine Treatment Satisfaction Measure (MTSM).  Value in Health 11(5):904-912, 2008.

Symonds T, Perelman MA, Althof S, Giuliano F, Martin M, May K, Abraham L, Crossland A, Morris M.  Further evidence to the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Int J Impot Res 19(5): 521-525, 2007.

Bushnell DM, Martin ML, Ricci JF, Bracco A. Performance of the EQ-5D in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.  Value in Health 9(2):90-97, 2006.

Bushnell DM, Reilly MC, Galani C, Martin ML, Ricci JF, Patrick DL, McBurney CR; Validation of electronic data capture (EDC) of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Quality of Life measure (IBS-QOL), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (WPAI:IBS) and the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Value in Health  9(2): 98-105, 2006.

Bushnell DM, Galani C, Martin ML, Ricci JF, Reilly M, Patrick DL. Validation of EDC versions of IBS-QOL, ED-5D, and WPAI:IBS questionnaires. Value in Health 8(3): 374, 2005.

Martin ML, Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Gandra SR, Pesa J. Further validation of the Migraine Treatment Satisfaction measure. Value in Health 8(3): 318, 2005.

Bushnell DM, Martin ML. Validation of the Symptom Frequency and Bothersomeness Scale for Stress Urinary Incontinence (SFB-SUI) in a British population. Value in Health 8(6): A88, 2005.

Patrick DL, Bushnell DM, Rothman M, Performance of Two Self-Report Measures for Evaluating Obesity and Weight Loss, Obesity Research, Vol. 12 No. 1, January 2004.

Abraham L, Hareendran A, Mills I, Martin ML, P, Drake MJ, MacDonagh RP, Noble JG. The Development and Validation of a Quality of Life measure for men with Nocturia (N-QOL), Urology 63:481-486, 2004.

Bushnell DM, Martin ML, Parasuraman B. Electronic versus paper questionnaires: A further comparison in persons with asthma. Journal of Asthma, 40(7):751-762, 2003.

Amir M, Lewin-Epstein N, Becker G, Buskila D. Psychometric Properties of the SF-12 (Hebrew version) in a primary care population in Israel. Medical Care 40(10):918-28, 2002. 

Bushnell DM, Martin ML. Quality of life and Parkinson's disease: Translation and validation of the US Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Quality of Life Research 8:345-350, 1999.


LIDO Publications 

Rocha NS, Fleck MP, Power MJ, Bushnell DM.  Cross-cultural evaluation of the WHOQOL-BREF domains in primary care depressed patients using Rasch analysis.  Medical Decision Making 32(1):41-55, 2012.

Rocha NS, Power MJ, Bushnell DM, Fleck MP.  EUROHIS-QOL 8: Comparative measurement properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF measure. Value in Health 15:449-457, 2012.

Fleck M, Lima A, Louzada S, Schestasky G, Henriques A, Borges V, Camey S, The LIDO Group. Association of depressive symptoms with social functioning, quality of life and resource utilization in a Brazilian primary care service users. (SA) Journal of Public Health Vol 36: (4), 2002.

Bech P, Lucas R, Amir M, Bushnell D, Martin M, Buesching, The LIDO Group. Association between clinically depressed subgroups, type of treatment and patient retention in the LIDO study. Psychological Medicine, 2003, 33, 1051-1059.

McKenna S, Whalley D, Diehr P, Amir M, Bech P, Buesching D, Bushnell D, Jones-Palm D, Martin M, Patrick D, The LIDO Group. Measuring outcome in depression: the relations between disease, impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life. In preparation for submission to Journal of Affective Disorders.

Fleck M, Simon G, van den Brink W, Lucas R, Herrman H, The LIDO Group. The Impact of antidepressant treatment in functioning, response and remission of depressive symptoms in primary care setting. In preparation for submission to Archives of General Psychiatry.

Fleck M, Simon G, Hermann H, Martin M, Bushnell D, Patrick D, The LIDO Group. Major depression and its correlates in Primary Care Settings in 6 countries: a 9-month follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry (2005) 186, 41-47.

Simon G, Chisholm D, Knapp M, Bushnell DM, Patrick D, The LIDO Group. Effects of depression treatment on health services and disability costs in an international primary care study. In preparation for submission to Psychological Medicine.

Diehr PH, Derleth A, McKenna SP, Martin ML, Bushnell DM, Simon G, Patrick DL. Synchrony of change in depressive symptoms, health status, and quality of life in persons with clinical depression. Health Qual Life Outcomes 4(1):27, 2006.

Whalley D, Bushnell D, McKenna S, Patrick D, The LIDO Group. The International Perspective on Quality of Life in major depression. In preparation for submission to Social Science and Medicine.

Diehr P, Chen L, Patrick D, Feng Z, Yasui Y; Reliability, Effect Size and Responsiveness of Health Status Measures in the Design of Randomized and Cluster-Randomized Trials. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 26 (2005) 45-58.

Simon GE, Fleck M, Lucas R, Bushnell DM, The LIDO Group. Prevalence and predictors of depression treatment in an international primary care study. Archives of General Psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 161:1626-1634, September 2004

Herrman H, Patrick D, Diehr P, Fleck M, Simon GE, Buesching D, The LIDO Group. Longitudinal Investigation of Depression Outcomes in Primary Care in Six Countries: The LIDO Study: Functional Status, Health Service Use and Treatment of People with Depressive Symptoms. Psychological Medicine. 2002 Jul;32(5):889-902

Simon GE, Chisholm D, Treglia M, Bushnell DM, The LIDO Group. Course of depression, health services costs, and work productivity in an international primary care study.  General Hospital Psychiatry 2002; 24: 328-335

Chisholm D, Diehr P, Knapp M, Patrick D, Treglia M, Simon G. Depression status, medical comorbidity and resource costs: evidence from an international study of major depression in primary care (LIDO). Br J Psychiatry 2003 Aug; 183 (2):121-31.

Amir M, Lewin-Epstein N, Becker G, Buskila D. Psychometric Properties of the SF-12 (Hebrew version) in a primary care population in Israel. Medical Care 40(10):918-28, 2002.

Amir M, Shani L, Buskila D. Functioning, depressive symptoms and gender. Submitted to Acta Scandinavia Psychometrica.

Fleck M, Lima A, Louzada S, Schestasky G, Henriques A, Borges V, Camey S, The LIDO Group. Impact of depressive symptoms in social functioning and quality of life in a Brazilian primary care service user. Submitted to South American Journal of Public Health.

Chisholm D, Amir M, Fleck M, Herrman H, Lomachenkov A, Lucas R, and the LIDO Group. Longitudinal Investigation of the Depression Outcomes (the LIDO Study) in primary care in six countries: Comparative Assessment of Local Health Systems and resource utilization. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2001; 10(2):59-71.

Chisholm D, Knapp M, The LIDO Group. The economic burden of depression: evidence from an international study in primary care (the LIDO study). CEMH Mental Health Research Review, June 2001; 8: 8-12,

Jones-Palm DH, Martin ML, Patrick DL, Buesching D, LIDO Group. The Longitudinal Investigation of Depression Outcomes (LIDO) Study. Quality of Life Newsletter 23:13-14, 1999.


Economics Publications

Budhiarso I, Martin ML, Bushnell DM, Treglia M, Buesching D. Development of a self-administered willingness to pay measure for urinary incontinence. In preparation for submission to Value in Health.

Simon GE, Chisholm D, Treglia M, Bushnell DM, LIDO Group. Course of depression, health services costs, and work productivity in an international primary care study.  General Hospital Psychiatry 24: 328-335, 2002. 

Chisholm D, Diehr P, Knapp M, Patrick D, Treglia M, Simon G, and the LIDO Group. Depression Status, Medical co-morbidity and resource costs: evidence from an international study of major depression in primary care (LIDO).Br J Psychiatry Aug 183 (2): 121-131, 2003. 

Chisholm D, Amir M, Fleck M, Herrman H, Lomachenkov A, Lucas R, and the LIDO Group. Longitudinal Investigation of the Depression Outcomes (the LIDO Study) in primary care in six countries: Comparative Assessment of Local Health Systems and resource utilization. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 10:59-71, 2001.  

Budhiarso I, Bushnell D, Ramsey S.  Willingness to pay of patients with painful-irritable bladder syndrome. Value in Health 2(1):27, 1999.


General Publications

Brod M, Christensen T, Bushnell DM.  Maximizing the value of validation findings to better understand treatment satisfaction issues for diabetes.  Quality of Life Research 16(6):1053-1063, 2007.

Martin ML, Brazg T. Assessing quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence. In:  Pflegebezogene Assessment-instrumente: Internationales Handbuch für Pflegeforschung und -praxis [Care-related assessment procedures: International guide for nursing research and practice]. (Eds. Reuschenbach B and Mahler C) Bern: Verlag Hans Huber, 2011 (Chapter 15, pp 271-290).

Brod M, Cobden D, Lammert M, Bushnell D, Raskin P.  Examining correlates of treatment satisfaction for injectable insulin in type 2 diabetes: Lessons learned from a clinical trial comparing biphasic and basal analogues.  Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 5:8, 2007.

Symonds T, Spino C, Sisson M, Soni P, Martin M, Gunter L, Patrick DL.  Methods to determine the minimum important difference (MID) for a sexual event diary used by postmenopausal women with HSDD.  Journal of Sexual Medicine 4(5):1328-1335, 2007.

Pickard AS, Dalal MR, Bushnell DM. A Comparison of Depressive Symptoms in Stroke and Primary Care: Applying Rasch Models to Evaluate the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Value in Health 9(2):59-64, 2006.

Shaw C, Das Gupta R, Bushnell DM, Assassa RP, Abrams P, Wagg A, Mayne C, Hardwick C, Martin M.  The extent and severity of urinary incontinence amongst women in UK GP waiting rooms.  Family Practice 23(5):497-506, 2006

Scanlon P, Martin ML, Bailey C, Johnson E, Hykin P, Keightly S.  Reported symptoms and quality of Life impacts in patients having laser treatment for sight threatening diabetic retinopathy.  Diabetic Medicine 23(1):60-66, 2006.

Budhiarso I, Derleth A, Martin ML, Costs of Obesity in the US and Europe: A Review of the Literature. Value in Health 8 (3), 2005.

Wagg A, Das Gupta R, Assassa P, Shaw C, Mayne C, Martin ML; Secondary care treatment patterns in the UK for women with urinary incontinence (UI). British J of Urology 174:1896-1901, 2005.

Editors:  Berger ML, Bingefors K, Hedblom EC, Pashos CL, Torrance GW, Dix Smith M; Contributors: Martin M, Bushnell D, Budhiarso I, et al. Health Care Cost, Quality, and Outcomes, ISPOR Book Of Terms by International Society for Pharmoeconomics and Outcomes Research, Lawrenceville, NJ  2003.

Budhiarso I, Bushnell D, Martin M, T Hogan.  Impact of patient diary format on quality of life outcomes in people with Parkinson’s disease.  Quality of Life Research 7(7):576-577, 1998.

Buchner DM, Nicola RM, Martin ML, Patrick DL. Physical activity and health promotion for older adults in public housing. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 13(6 Suppl):57-62, 1997.

Malmgren JA, Martin ML, Nicola RM. Health care access of poverty-level older adults in subsidized public housing. Public Health Reports 111(3):260-263, 1996.

Carter WB, Omenn GS, Martin ML, Crump C, Grunbaum JA, Williams OD. Characteristics of health promotion projects in federal worksites. American Journal of Health Promotion 10(2):140-147, 1995.

Wagner EH, Karlen P, Martin ML, Omenn GS, Buchner DM. Developing an HMO as a laboratory for preventive research. Prevention March 26, 1992.

Carter WB, Elward K, Malmgren JA, Martin ML, Larson E. Participation of older adults in health programs and research: A critical review of the literature. The Gerontologist 31(5):584-592, 1991.

Buchner DM, Carter WB, Wagner EH, Martin ML. Issues in measuring physical activity in older adults. Clinical Research 38:382A, 1990.

Carter WB, McKenna M, Martin ML, Andresen EM. Health Education: Special Issues for Older Adults. Patient Education Counseling 13(2):117-131, 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© 2008 Health Research Associates